Regular cleaning and maintenance will save you money and extend the life of your heat pump or HVAC unit.
Shut Off The Power
Due to the dangers of working around electricity and the air-conditioner’s moving parts, it’s essential to completely turn off power to the unit. On the exterior condenser/compressor, look for an exterior shut-off box near the unit. Indoors, also turn the power off at the breaker box.
On the exterior condenser/compressor, remove the fan cage. Using a screwdriver or wrench, remove the fasteners and lift the cage or fan grill away from the top of the unit. By hand, or with a wet/dry vacuum, clean leaves and other debris from the interior.
Clean The Fins
With a strong stream from a garden hose, spray through the fins from the inside out to blast any built up dirt or debris from between them. Never use a pressure washer, since the pressure can damage the fins. If the fins are particularly dirty, use a commercially available fin cleaning spray (available at home improvement centers; read and follow manufacturer directions).
Straighten The Fins
Since any reduction in air-flow through the fins can reduce efficiency, carefully straighten bent fins using a butter knife or commercially available fin-straightening tool. Be gentle so that the tubing embedded within the fins is not damaged.
Clean Area Around The Unit
Once finished with the cleaning, replace the fan cage. Rake back leaves and debris outside the condenser and cut back branches and vegetation at least 2 feet in all directions to ensure proper airflow around the unit. During winter months when the condenser is not in use, it’s good to cover the top of the unit with a piece of plywood or plastic to keep debris from falling in. However, don’t completely cover the unit’s sides, since moisture can build up inside and cause corrosion. Also, a completely covered unit encourages vermin to build nests inside. Remove any cover when the unit is operating.
Level the Unit
Over time, the pad upon which the condenser unit sits can begin to tip as the soil settles beneath it. An out-of-level condenser unit can cause the compressor within to fail early. Check the condenser for level and use rot-resistant shims to bring it back to level. Service Experts’ Moody adds this exception: “If you have a heat pump system, it’s okay for the pad to be slightly sloped away from the home’s foundation to allow for defrost run-off during the winter.”
Clean the Evaporator Coil
Now it’s time to move inside. On the inside blower/furnace unit, find the evaporator coil door. You may need to remove some foil duct tape and take out a few screws or bolts. Inside, use a soft brush to dust off the coil, then spray the coil with commercially available no-rinse coil cleaner (available at home improvement stores). The spray will foam up and then drip into the drain pan. Clean out the drain pan with soap, hot water, and a little bleach. Then, pour a cup of 50% bleach/50% water down the drain. To keep the drain clear longer-term, place a commercially available drain pan tablet in the pan. This will inhibit future algae growth.
If the bleach solution drains easily, skip the next step. If not, move on to next step. Replace the evaporator coil door and use foil duct tape to re-seal, if necessary.
Clean a Plugged Evaporator Drain
On the interior, warm, humid air from your home’s interior is blown through the evaporator coil. The cold coil absorbs heat from the air, cooling it, before the air is circulated back into your home. The humidity in the air condenses on the cool surface of the evaporator coil as liquid water, dripping into a pan below. From the pan, the water flows into a drain tube which is typically routed into a basement floor drain, utility sink, or outdoors.
Over time, algae and mold can build up and potentially plug the drain, so if the drain is either not flowing or flowing very slowly, it will need to be unplugged. A plugged drain can either cause damage by flooding onto the floor or, if the system is equipped with a drain float, cause the system to stop cooling in order to avoid flooding.
First, find the drain line where it leaves the evaporator coil enclosure. The drain is usually a one-inch PVC pipe (white, grey, or black). Follow it to the end where it drains. Often the line drains outside near the condenser unit, but it can also drain into a utility sink or basement floor drain or, in the case of attic units, down an outside wall.
Once located, use a wet/dry vacuum to clear the drain. It’s best to remove the paper filter from the wet/dry vacuum so as not to ruin the filter. Hold the hose of the wet/dry vacuum to the end of the drain line. You can use duct tape or simply hold a rag around the gap. Turn on the vacuum for 2-3 minutes then turn off. This will clear the drain of any growing biological matter.
Change The Blower Filter
The filter in your HVAC system should be changed at least twice a year – once just before the heating season begins and once before the cooling season begins. If you live in a particularly dusty area, you may want to change it more often. Always replace the filter with a new filter that has the same airflow rating. Again, Moody cautions, “Be careful with ‘air purifying’ or HEPA filters,” he says, “because they can dramatically reduce airflow in your system. That can cause the indoor coil to freeze because of the reduced airflow.”
Locate the filter enclosure on the indoor furnace/AC where the large fresh air return duct enters the unit. You may need a screwdriver to turn the latch to open the door to the filter enclosure. Remove the old filter and install the new filter, matching the air-flow direction arrows on the filter to the arrows on the unit. Close and latch the door.
Turn The Power Back On
While these steps will help to keep your AC system in top shape, be aware that there are maintenance items that only a trained HVAC technician will be able to do. For example, a slow refrigerant leak in your AC system can lead to expensive compressor failure, but a homeowner doesn’t have the tools or skills necessary to check refrigerant levels. Also, clean ducts and proper airflow are essential to a well-functioning system, but homeowners lack the necessary equipment for the job. The bottom line? While some AC maintenance can be done by a savvy homeowner, it’s still necessary to have an expert technician check the system periodically.